A transit of Venus across the body of the Sun is similar in principle to a solar eclipse but instead of the Moon being in line between the Earth and Sun it is the planet Venus that stands directly between us. This can only occur when Venus is at her inferior conjunction - and hasn't happened since 1882. To prepare our minds for the upcoming transit in June 2004, this article examines the broader role of Venus as portrayed through mythological expressions of human emotion and desire. The second part of the article reflects upon historical examples of powerful women whose lives have coincided with periods of previous transits.
This article is adapted from work presented on Nancy R. Fenn's website: bemyastrologer.com
It's all about the cultivation of desire and the journey from red roses to lilies. A series of Venus eclipses has been evolving through the first 15 degrees of Gemini and Sagittarius since 60 AD to raise our awareness of what it is we want and what we think about what other people want. These are very pertinent issues for today.
Venus transits across the face of the Sun are periodic events that are quite rare. No human now living has ever experienced one. The next will take place on June 8, 2004. There will be a follow-up transit on June 6, 2012, then no more for another century.
The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, of Maryland, USA, remarks of these occurences:
Venus transits the Sun either 105.5 years or 121.5 years later at the opposite node of Venus' orbit than the last time.
A pair of transits will often occur separated by eight years. This recurrence pattern of 8 + 105.5 + 8 + 121.5 years can be seen repeating itself in the catalog of Venus transits.
An example of the pattern can be seen in the transits of 1631, 1639, 1761, 1769, 1874, 1882, 2004 and 2012. Occasionally, one of the eight year "double-transits" may disappear from the catalog for several centuries because one of them is a near miss. For instance, note the "missing" transits of 1388, 1145, 0902, 0659, 0416, etc.
My historical research has revealed an obvious connection between what was going on in the world at the time of these transits and what we might expect from a powerful influence of Venus. I looked at every transit beginning with 0 CE. The first of the millenium, in 60 CE, responded to the time of the Celtic Queen Boudicca, She of the Flaming Mane, revolting against the Romans and razing London. I found without doubt some of the most powerful women in history making history at the times when Venus crossed the Sun.
These history-making women were not powerful in the sense of 'the hand that rocks the cradle rules the world', though some of them were. They are more powerful in terms of 'rules the world'. Perhaps this is Venus asking us to take another look at the feminine. One woman in particular stands out, Mirabai or Meera of India (1498-1546) of India, who is revered today particularly because she stood against husband and family for what she thought was right.
Because transits like this, like eclipses, have a lingering effect, I looked at events and personalities that fell around the time of the Venus transits. They occur only once a century but their effect lingers on like phosphorus - one of the names given to Venus. The epithets of Venus have much to say about her nature. It is worth reviewing these as part of drawing ourselves into an intimate aquaintance with her influence.
The concerns of Venus are the way that we express our feminine sides and the things that we desire - also, the strength of our desire. As our understanding of feminine nature and the psychology of desire changes through the centuries, we would expect our understanding of Venutian energy to evolve as well. We know that the symbolism of Venus which has been projected upon the planet in the sky, casts a net wide enough to catch all of our projections - those of the 21st century as well as those of the 1st century. That is the scope of this article.
In ancient Greece, Venus was one of the astra planetoi, the gods/goddesses of the five Wandering Stars or Planets. She has had several common names in ancient cultures, 'the Morning Star', 'the Evening Star', 'Lucifer, the Light-Bearer' and 'Phosphoros'.
Venus rules two signs: Taurus and Libra. Writers before me have explored the nature of Venus in her Taurus and Libran aspects but let me summarize. Venus on the bright side, like Botticelli's 'Venus of the Half Shell' is Venus in her cerebral, courtesan Libran aspect. Venus Pandemos, Venus of the People, has a sensual quality related to the earthiness of Taurus which can pleasure itself.
Since the planet Venus is about desire, the Libran Venus - at its most conscious - will seek harmony through self-determination while the conscious Taurean Venus will seek self-extension in response to the desire of another.
Unconscious uses of Venus include:
In the context of this article, I am including intangibles as well as tangibles. For example, wanting everyone to have the same religion as you. Or wanting more of the world's resources than you need.
- wanting what everyone else wants
- wanting something you can't have
- wanting something someone else has
- wanting something JUST because someone else has it
- wanting something or someone all to yourself
- wanting anything in excess
- wanting things exclusively because they are a challenge
- not knowing what you want
- indiscriminately giving away what you have
- wanting everyone else to want what you want
- forcing everyone else to want what you want
Although a planet of attraction, and referred to as 'the lesser benefic', it is important to appreciate that Venus also has some very unattractive qualities. We know that one of her epithets in ancient times was Venus Cloaca or Cloacina, 'Venus of the Sewers'. Venus is the ruler of venereal disease and prostitution. To understand the complexity of Venus, you should realise that there are many kinds of prostitution. The word 'venal' is chosen for someone who is "open to bribery, mercenary, capable of betraying honor, duty, or scruples for a price or corruptible" according to dictionary.com. Another related word is 'venial', as in 'venial sins', those which do not mortally wound the soul, but weaken it just as slight wounds weaken the body. In Catholicism, one is warned to beware of venial sins because they lead so quickly to mortal sins.
Jungian psychologists have helped us to understand the bi-polar nature of women. Women alternate rhythmically between loving, giving and nurturing and a retraction back into themselves which seems cold.
We know, too, that love has its dark side. There are stories in the news about people who kill loved ones in moments of rage. Some people have even killed their own children. These tragic events have been foreshadowed in our nature by myths such as Medea. The most famous version of this story, where an enraged wife kills her own children, is the play by Euripides of the same name, but the legend - and the characteristic in women - is as old as time itself. People have been discussing Medea's motives for hundreds of years.
La LLorona is a southwestern version of the same story. La Llorona is a Mexican princess who has two children with a Spanish aristocrat whom she loves deeply. When it comes time for him to 'officially' marry, he returns home for a Spanish bride and Llorona, in despair, drowns her two sons. Even today, the story goes, she is often seen walking with her long hair by the river, mourning the loss of all she loved. Linda Ronstadt did a marvelous version of this folk song in the 70s. Lhasa De Sela has recently put out an album of the same name.
Venus, like all the Greek gods and goddesses had many epithets or 'handles'. She was also called Venus Genetrix in her aspect as the Divine Mother; Venus Felix or favorable Venus; Venus Obsequens, Venus the Gracious Pleaser; and Venus Victrix the Victorious Venus.
Phosphoros is another name for the Morning and Evening Star. When I teach people how to think intuitively, I put forth the challenge: think of the ways that Venus could be like phosphorus.
The Greek word phosphoros meaning 'light bearer', and our word for the chemical element phosphorus are related. The chemical element of that name was discovered by German alchemist Hennig Brand in 1669 through a preparation from urine. Working in Hamburg, Brand attempted to distill salts by evaporating urine, and in the process produced a white material that glowed in the dark and burned brilliantly. Since that time, phosphorescence has been used to describe substances that shine in the dark without burning. Today in Science says:
The valuable and important properties of phosphorus are legion. The German chemist Moleschott once said: "Without phosphorus there is no thought." This is true, because cerebral tissues contain many complex phosphorus compounds. But neither is there life without phosphorus. Without it respiratory processes would be impossible and muscles could store no energy. Finally, phosphorus is one of the most important "bricks" of any living organism. As a matter of fact, the principal component of bony tissue is calcium phosphate.
Lucifer is another name connected in ancient times with the planet Venus. The name Lucifer, which comes from a Latin word that means 'light bearer', has a complicated set of qualities of a seemingly contradictory nature because it is also one of the names of the Devil in Christian theology. As if that weren't confusing enough, a New Testament Greek Lexicon defines Lucifer as:
How can one word mean both a light-bearer and metaphorically Christ - AND the Devil? This is a topic theologians and others have discussed for many years. According to one Biblical scholar, the name Lucifer first appears in the fourteenth chapter of the Old Testament book of Isaiah, at the twelfth verse: "How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! How art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!"
- light bringing, giving light
- the planet Venus, the morning star, day star
- metaph. Christ
Since Lucifer is a Roman word and this part of the Bible was originally written in Hebrew or Aramaic, it may be that the text actually refers to a fallen Babylonian king, Helal, son of Shahar, which could be translated as "Day Star, Son of the Dawn," most likely to describe his imminent radiance before his fall from temporal power, similar to the way Louis XIV is described as the 'Sun King'. David Grinspoon in his book, Venus Revealed, comments on the historical aspects of the word as follows:
The origin of the Judeo-Christian Devil as an angel fallen from heaven into the depths of hell is mirrored in the descent of Venus from shining morning star to the darkness below. This underworld demon, still feared today by people in many parts of the world, is also called Lucifer, which was originally a Latin name for Venus as a morning star.
The 'fall' of Venus is also mirrored in Brinton's description of the descent to the goddess. Our initiation into the deep feminine is through a downward journey into things that at first don't seem feminine at all. It would appear that Venus, the most beautiful goddess of all, has a very ugly side.
Recent discoveries about astronomical Venus conform to this polar aspect. Once considered our Sister or Twin Planet, recent discoveries reveal that the surface of Venus is as toxic as can be. Venus has no oceans and is surrounded by a heavy atmosphere composed mainly of carbon dioxide with no water vapour. Its clouds are composed of sulfuric acid droplets. No life is possible on Venus.
There is no life possible on Venus but life is not possible without Phosphoros. What a tapestry of opposites we have here. This play on words is homeopathic. Venus teaches us one of her favorite theories, the Golden Mean. What is deadly in the macrocosm is life affirming in the microcosm. This is also one of the favorite themes of the Renaissance, such as the familiar emblem below, Man as Microcosm.
Venus was characterized by Pythagoras as the sol alter, the 'other Sun', because of its radiance. There has been a mystical connection between Venus and the Sun that has lasted for over 2000 years and this connection will be personified when Venus flirts her way across the massive body of the Sun for all to see on June 8, 2004. The sephira of these two heavenly bodies are connected to one another on the Tree of Life or Cabalistic glyph. Some readers may wish to link this discussion with the 24th path of the Cabala which leads from Netzach (Venus/Victory - desire) to Tippereth (the Sun/Beauty - the resurrected gods). This path is DEATH, the 13th card of the Tarot Deck and the Hebrew letter is NUN. This path represents the 'fall' of the soul into Persona or personality consistent with our previous discussion.
Netzach is the first sephirah of the astral personality. Of course what is referred to here is death in the sense of the 'fall into matter' which has been discussed by theologians, Jungians and others for centuries. When spirit incarnates and takes flesh, a Persona is also taken, an astral personality and this is another version of the fall into matter. As usual, the Cabala reverses things as the Sun is Beauty, not Venus and Venus is Victory, not the Sun. 
The dual aspect of the feminine was regularly portrayed in early goddesses such as Anat, the Supreme Goddess of the Ugaritic Pantheon, Saule of Lithuania, the Valkyries, Erishkegal, Phoenician Astarte and the Hindu Kali, to name just a few. An interesting morph on this is the Roman Goddess of War, Athena. She's all cleaned up but she is a war goddess. Some of her epithets are Agraulos, the mysterious dark and sorrowful; Halea, of the Sea; Hippia, of Horses; Glaukopis, with the Eyes of an Owl (her sacred bird); Ergane, of Works (Where would Athena be without her hands?); Pallas Athena, one of the most familiar, the meaning of which is undecided; Pandrosos, light like the olive tree, Parthenos, the Virgin, Promakhos, standing in the front in battle, and the most interesting to me of all, Athena Gorgopis, She who wears the Gorgon on her shield.
Athena is a good representation of a Libran woman, a woman ruled by the Libran qualities of Venus. Athena is the goddess of the 'just' war, the war that must be fought. She's a strategist. Her goal is to get it over with as quickly as possible - through a winning strategy - and then return to the normal commerce of the day. Her counterpart Mars has bloodlust and fights for the sake of fighting. Mars will go looking for a war.
An often overlooked feature of cerebral Athena - revealing a hidden aspect of the ruler Venus - is that she and the Gorgon (Medusa) are inseparable - Athena Gorgopis. Look at any authentic statue of Athena and there is the Gorgon's head on her shield. The Gorgon was a mythical creature who portrayed the darkest aspects of the feminine: revenge, hatred, lust for power, bitterness and self hatred. To look on the Gorgon's face is to die. As the story goes, she was raped and has not forgiven, will never forget. She is the dreadful first cousin of 'the woman scorned'.
Venus cycles are a fifth harmonic, with the retrograde cycle of Venus forming a pentagram across the wheel of the zodiac over time.  Fifth harmonics symbolize and reflect extremes of creativity and the union of ideas with the practical world. Five is also called the 'Number of Man'. Both concepts are shown in this familiar image after Leonard DaVinci, 'squaring the circle'.
My favorite way to remember the fifth harmonic of Venus is to think of an apple, the fruit of desire. The apple was the seduction of choice for Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. It was coveted by the Greeks in their myths about the 'Golden Apples' which were guarded by the three beautiful Hesperides. The Golden Apples conferred eternal life.
If you cut an apple crosswise, it reveals it's five-fold symmetry or pentagram of seeds to you. Apples and roses, two of the most desirable plants in the world, are part of a large family of plants called Rosaceae which include strawberries, blackberries, raspberries, cherries, plums, peaches and pears, all of which have five-petalled flowers. Although cultivated roses have many more petals, they have five sepals around the base of the flower.
The story of the apple of discord is apt here as well. Eris, the Goddess of Chaos, Discord and Confusion (what else?) was not invited to the banquet and so she fashioned a solid gold apple, inscribed upon it, 'To the Fairest' and tossed it into the room for Hera, Venus and Athena to squabble over. Zeus, no fool, would not clarify this issue and instead chose the hapless shepherd Paris to pick a winner. Athena promised him victories in war. Hera promised him great wealth. Venus (our heroine) took off her clothes and promised him the most beautiful woman in the world - Helen of Troy. The rest, as they say, is history. This myth is illustrative of the nature of women and men and also of the nature of desire.
Many things come in fives: the five senses, the five Chinese elements, the five vowels in the English alphabet. We have five fingers and five senses. Five symbolizes spirit resurrected from or exalted from the body and as such embodies the inversion of the 'fall into matter'. The negative tendencies of the number five are 'attracted by everything, an opportunist and a sensualist'.
Thus Venus, as an astrological symbol, is revealed by her epithets as both light and dark. Some of her influences are listed below and should be borne in mind as we reflect upon the historical themes that emerged during past transits of the Sun.
The lighter side of Venus
The darker side of Venus
- beauty, harmony, delight and pleasure
- rejoices in sexuality
- enjoys life beyond the role of wife and mother
- sensual and earthy, in touch with the body (Taurus)
- charm and intelligence, the fruits of cultivation (Libra)
- enjoys the company of men
- brings relaxation and comfort into life
- provides company and an environment that is pleasing to the senses
- draws to it what it desires
- sociable, socially gifted
- entertains beautifully and sees to others' needs
- artistic and creative
- takes things into the body to know about them
- gives form to matter
- greedy, lustful and hate-filled (driven by negative emotions)
- carnal and bestial
- turns one person against another
- finds out what someone wants and manipulates them by withholding it
- insatiable desires
- is corruptible or corrupts others
- has sex just for his/her own pleasure
- competes with son(s) or daughter(s)
- competes unnecessarily with others for sexual partners or for attention from the opposite sex
- avoids childbirth or resents children for ruining their figure or their pleasure
- is unfaithful or promiscuous
- marries for money
- prostitutes or degrades self or others
- bitterness, revenge and retaliation
- confuses power with love
- seeks power over another through sex
- emotional betrayal
There are many different facets to the planet Venus as there are to the deep feminine. Perhaps during a Venus transit of the Sun, it is time to look at the amount of Soul which has fallen into Persona and redeem something.
Certainly, it is a time to look again at how we are expressing the feminine principle and how we are honoring it individually and collectively. Because these transits have been taking place in Gemini and Sagittarius since the birth of Christ or 0 CE, the connection between Venus and the law, Venus and evolution, Venus and philosophy, learning and religion is highlighted.
Perhaps we are being asked to examine our desires in a context of higher principles and to then enfold these principles into our daily lives. Because women have been the object of desire for the last 2000 years, the battleground centers around the female of the species but I do not believe that is the fundamental nature of the principle evolving. The fundamental principle is what, indeed, do we desire? What will we desire? And even, what should we desire?
Considering these transits, is it any wonder that the object of our desires for the past 2000 years has centered on religion? When Venus talks to Gemini and Sagittarius, that is likely to be the topic. Perhaps with transits to come, we can grow to realize that the object of our desire might better be peace and harmony and that we would be willing to give up a little religion to get it.
Gemini and Sagittarius also revel in diversity. These signs thrive on travel, communication and exchanges of all nature. These signs learn languages easily, have flexible minds and process information with ease. When Venus passes in front of the Sun, perhaps she draws into her body more love of diversity and more tolerance for different ways of thinking and being.
The Salic Laws
One of the patterns that emerged most clearly from this research is the evolution of the Salic Laws during periods of Venus eclipse. The laws of the Salian Franks issued under Clovis in the late 5th century concerned both criminal and civil matters. They were not based on either Roman Law or other contemporary law codes but rather upheld their own principles. They are important for later periods - highlighted by these Venus transits - because they prohibited women from inheriting lands. The canon of Salic Law was invoked in the following critical periods:
Each of these time periods involved a Venus transit across the Sun.
- in the 1100s the rivalry between Maud (1102-67) and Stephen for the throne of England
- between 1312-77, one of the causes of the Hundred Years War as Edward III laid claim to the French throne through his mother, Queen Isabelle
- during the reign of Philip V (1683-1746) the Salic Laws were introduced to Spain
- in 1789 and 1833 the succession to the Spanish throne was challenged with the Salic Laws
- in Queen Victoria's time (1819-1901) the union between Great Britain and Hanover, which began when the elector of Hanover ascended the British throne as George I, ended because the Guelphs (Hanovers) followed the Salic law
The Actual Transits
In reviewing some of the things that happened when Venus transitted the Sun in previous centuries, I have not limited myself too strictly on the number of years between a transit and an event because the span of the transits is an entire century. Not all potential eclipses in a sequence actually happen. They are "near misses" astronomically. They are indicated as "missing" in the list below. On many days of eclipses, there were configurations involving more than five planets. I used only conjunctions, square and oppositions for purposes of this article. Naturally every eclipse has a Sun/Venus conjunct.
May 22, 60 CE
Venus has just retrograded back to 0° Gemini conjunct Sun and trine Pluto.
Missing Transit 69 CE
Queen Boudicca (born c. 30 CE)
The Celtic Queen Boudicca, ruler and war leader of the Iceni, gathered the support of some neighboring tribes, and led a rare revolt against the Romans. The Roman commander sacrificed London to her advance. She slaughtered all Roman inhabitants and razed the town.
Nobly fighting a losing cause, Boudicca of the Flaming Mane killed herself with poison rather than be captured and ritually executed by the Romans. A contemporary, Ammianus Marcellinus, is quoted in Celtic Women: Women in Celtic Society and Literature, by Peter Berresford Ellis (p.82) as saying:
A whole troop of foreigners would not be able to withstand a single Celt if he called his wife to his assistance. The wife is even more formidable. She is usually very strong, and with blue eyes; in rage her neck veins swell, she gnashes her teeth, and brandishes her snow-white robust arms. She begins to strike blows mingled with kicks, as if they were so many missiles sent from the string of a catapult.
Missing Transit 173 CE
November 22, 181 CE
Venus @ 0° Sagittarius conjunct Sun square Mars opposite Uranus and Pluto
May 24, 303 CE
Empress Himiko (born c. 154 CE)
Empress Himiko of Japan, a woman with shamanic powers, was chosen after years of constant warfare to lead her people. The Wei Chronicles describe her as living in relative seclusion in her palace, unmarried and attended by many women. Her desires were communicated to the public through the only male in her palace. She sent envoys to China to establish trade and diplomatic relations.
Venus @ 2° Gemini conjunct Sun trine Saturn, Neptune and Pluto (Grand Trine mixed Air/Earth)
Missing Transit 311 CE
Saint Susanna (martyred 294 CE)
Saint Susanna was martyred in 294 CE, leading to catastrophic events for Christians in 303. The Roman Emperor Diocletian tried for political reasons to force his cousin, Susanna, the only unmarried female member of his family, into wedlock. Susanna and other members of her family had secretly become Christians. Marrying as Diocletian dictated would require her to give up her religion. She had also taken a vow of virginity.
When Susanna refused, Diocletian ordered her execution. A cohort of soldiers arrived at her house and beheaded her. Other members of her family were killed as well. These murders within his own family foreshadowed Diocletian's last great persecution against the Christian Church which began in 303 CE.
Missing Transit 416 CE
November 22, 424 CE
Venus @ 3° Sagittarius conjunct Sun opposite Pluto
May 24, 546 CE and May 22, 554 CE
1. The Salian Laws (481 CE)
In 481, Clovis became king of the Salian Franks and created what are known as the 'Salic Laws'. These laws prohibit women from inheriting land or men through the female line of succession. Review above.
2. Queen Guenevere (c. 490 CE)
Queen Guenevere, if she truly existed, was born in 490 CE. The legends about her birth and life, her character and her love affair with Sir Lancelot vary depending on the author and the century when the story was retold. But whatever Guinevere was or was not, she has made a great contribution to the tales of King Arthur.
One version of Guenevere's tale:
"Guenevere of Cameliard, daughter of a Leodegrance, she first came to King Arthur's attention, when the then boy king was lifting a siege at her father's castle. Arthur intended to marry her, despite the warnings of Merlin, that she would in time betray him, with her love for Lancelot, the King's Champion. Before Arthur's passing Guenevere became Abbess of Almesbury to atone for her sins, where she died, and was taken to Glastonbury, by Lancelot for burial."
Venus @ 5°Gemini conjunct Sun trine Uranus
Venus @ 3° Gemini conjunct Sun/Jupiter trine Pluto
Missing Transit 659 CE
- Empress Theodora of the Byzantine Empire (497-548 CE)
The joint rule of the Byzantine Empire by Justinian I and his wife Theodora spanned the time period of two cycles separated by eight years.
It could be argued that Theodora was at least as powerful as her husband. Theodora did much to help the women of her time. She persuaded Justinian to issue edicts prohibiting prostitution. She built monasteries for the refuge of women fleeing prostitution and violence from their owners or husbands.
Theodora participated in almost everything Justinian undertook including the reconquest of Italy and construction of the Hagia Sophia, one of the most beautiful buildings in the world. It was her courage that persuaded Justinian to remain in Nika during riots and after that she openly proclaimed herself as a joint ruler.
The world famous Mosaics at St. Vitale in Ravenna are enduring testament to this powerful woman with her husband, who ruled another 20 years after her death.
November 23, 667 CE
Venus @ 6° Gemini conjunct Sun, part of a 7 planet Stellium making a mutable Tsquare with Uranus and Pluto. Saturn in Aquarius is the only planet not involved in this configuration.
May 24, 789 CE and May 22, 797 CE
- Queen Kahina of Zazzua (d. 705 CE)
Queen Kahina of Zazzua, a province of Nigeria now known as Zaria, fought against Arab and Berber incursions into North Africa. Being of the Hebrew faith, she favored neither Christians nor Muslims but was fighting to save Africa for Africans. She effectively prevented the spread of Islam southward into the Western Sudan. Because of her fierce resistance, the Arabs and Berbers changed their strategy.
Venus @ 8°Gemini conjunct Sun, Mercury trine Moon square Saturn/Neptune (mutable Tsquare)
Venus @ 8° Gemini conjunct Sun, Mercury square Mars trine Uranus, Neptune and Pluto (Grand Trine in Air)
Missing Transit 902 CE
Emperor [sic] Irene of the Byzantine Empire (752-803 CE)
Irene became Emperor of Byzantine in 797 but ruled in other capacities during the period that spanned these two Venus transits. She took over control from her weak husband and then ruled as regent for her young son, Constantine VI at her husband's death. Irene called herself basileus, the male form of the word "emperor" rather than basilissa.
When it came time for her son Constantine VI to find a wife, Irene was the first to use a 'bride-show'. The most beautiful and noble young ladies were brought before her so that she could choose the next empress. Her son was revolted and they became estranged. Irene eventually had his eyes put out and coincidentally there fell an "eclipse of the sun" and "17 days of darkness".
Irene was either courted by Charlemagne or tried to do the courting for political reasons, but nothing came of it. She was eventually exiled to Lesbos after a revolt and supported herself there by spinning.
Irene is remembered in the Eastern Orthodox Church as a saint because she restored the use of icons in religious worship.
November 23, 910 CE
Venus @ 9° Sagittarius conjunct Sun/Mercury and opposite Neptune/Pluto
May 24, 1032 CE and May 22, 1040 CE
Hroswitha (or Hrotsvit) of Gandersheim (930 - 990 CE)
Hroswitha was a nun, playwright, and the first women historian of the Germans. She belonged to a Benedictine monastery in Gundersheim which was a center of intellectual and religious activity. It was heavily funded by the German Holy Roman Emperor Otto I, who gave the abbess of the monastery much power and privilege.
Hroswitha became a canoness and was allowed to leave the convent for outside visits. She learned much about the world and wrote plays and poems about the struggle between paganism and Christianity, the lives of the saints, and heroic women who defended their honor. Hroswitha also wrote an epic poem about Otto I.
Venus @ 12° Gemini conjunct Sun/Mercury square Jupiter and Neptune (Mutable Tsquare)
Venus @ 10° Gemini conjunct Sun/Jupiter trine Saturn (loose Grand Trine in Air with Mars/Pluto)
Missing transit 1145 CE
1. Walladah Bint Mustakfi (1001 - 1080 CE)
Walladah Bint Mustakfi was the daughter of a Caliph who lived in Cordoba, Spain, Europe's intellectual center for most of the 10th century. At a time when Christian Europe was at a nadir, Cordoba under the Moors was a place of splendor. Walladah was sexually liberated, independently wealthy and considered to be one of the most gifted female poets of her era.
Walladah was known to have designed robes that had embroidered sleeves. On one robe was embroidered, "I am fit for high positions, by God, and go on my way with pride." On another was embroidered, "I allow my lover to touch my cheek, and bestow my kiss on him who craves it."
2. Empress Zoe (ruled 1045-55 CE)
Empress Zoe was the last of the Macedonian dynasty. She murdered her first husband, placed her second husband on the throne and then replaced him with her third and last husband, Constantine Monomachus. After his death in 1042, she ruled jointly with her sister Theodora.
Zoe was considered "unnatural" for her desire to rule and in truth did little to enhance her kingdom, being dedicated to pleasure and power rather than service.
3. Trotula (b. 1030 CE)
In Italy, Trotula practiced and taught medicine for women at a famous medical school in Salerno, Southern Italy. Trotula wrote about cesarean sections, loss of virginity and other practical gynecological issues in a text that was used in Europe for several hundred years. In northern Europe she became known as "Dame Trot".
4. Matilda or Maud of England (1101-1167 CE)
Matilda or Maud of England was the daughter of King Henry I. She was happily married to the German Holy Roman Emperor in 1114. She was popular in Germany and seemed more German than English.
When her husband died in 1125, she returned to England. Her brother had died, Henry I's only legitimate heir, and Henry fought very hard to secure the throne for Maud upon his death. She was formally recognized as his heir in 1127. But the next year she remarried and had three sons, the eldest being the future Henry II. Both she and her marriage were unpopular in England. She was arrogant and seemed like a foreigner to the British.
At the death of Henry I, the nobles gave their support to Baud's cousin Stephen instead of to her. She fought for many years contesting the throne. Finally her son Henry inherited her claim to the throne and was recognized as King Henry II in 1153. Maud retired to a life of charity in Normandy.
The Salic Laws were used to support Stephen's claim to the throne and to keep Maud from ruling.
Also of interest: This was the time of the troubadours, who sang of unrequited romantic love to ladies above their station in life. The troubadours began in southern France.
November 23, 1153 CE
Venus @ 12° Sagittarius conjunct Sun in a Stellium with 5 planets square Saturn and Pluto (Mutable Tsquare)
May 25, 1275 CE
1. Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204 CE)
Eleanor of Aquitaine was one of the most powerful women who ever lived and one of the most fascinating characters in Medieval history. She was rich because she inherited the Aquitaine, one of the greatest fiefs in Europe.
In a time before there were regular nations in Europe, Aquitaine was a country all its own with lands spreading from the Loire River to the Pyrenees. At 15 Eleanor married Louis VII of France. Her myth begins as she kneels before the famous Crusader Abbé Bernard of Clairvaux at 19 and offers thousands of her knights and vassals for the Second Crusade. Legend has it she appeared in town riding a white horse and galloped through the crowds trying to raise support. Eleanor accompanied the men on the Crusade, intending to nurse the wounded.
In 1152 she annulled her marriage, regained control of her vast properties and within a year married Henry, ten years her junior, who became Henry II of England two years later. (Maud was his mother.) Fast forward twenty years as Eleanor leads three of her sons in a revolt against their father, her husband, the King, who has imprisoned her.
Eleanor of Aquitaine fathered two kings of England, Richard the Lion Heart and King John. When Richard, now King Richard I, was away fighting in the Crusades, Eleanor defended him even against his brother John. When Richard was captured, Eleanor was instrumental in raising his ransom.
This remarkable woman traveled feverishly her entire life and died in her eighties in a monastery she had always loved.
- 2. Heloise (1101 - 1164 CE)
Heloise and Abelard engaged in what might be considered the first modern love affair. Abelard was a famous teacher and Heloise, 22 years his junior. They became infatuated with one another and Heloise conceived a child. They married and Abelard sent Heloise to a convent.
In 1121 Heloise's relatives (this is ugly) castrated Abelard. In 1136 he wrote the Historia Calamitatum, in which he describes his love affair with Heloise. In 1142, he died on the way to Rome. His remains were given to Heloise, who was buried with him in 1164. Their tomb is located at Pere Lachaise Cemetery in Paris.
- Also of interest: At this time the Japanese shogun prohibited poor people from selling their daughters as slaves but the practice continued. Also at this time the Japanese blackened their women's teeth to make them more beautiful.
Venus @ 15° Gemini conjunct Sun, (widely) Mercury, Uranus opposite Mars trine Moon/Saturn (Grand Trine in Air)
May 23, 1283 CE
Sorghaghtani Beki, Great Mother of Khans
"Towering above all the women of the world," at this time emerges a figure of great eminence in the Orient, Sorghaghtani Beki, Great Mother of Khans. Sorghaghtani had a lot of personal power. She was a daughter-in-law of the Mongol chieftain Genghis Khan, who called himself "the Scourge of God". Genghis Khan died in 1227 without leaving a clear rule for succession.
Sorghaghtani was the mother of Genghis Khan's grown grandsons and a powerful member of the Tolui tribe. After many years of quick turnover in the Khan and at a time in history when it was natural for leading women in Mongol tribes to control political events, Sorghaghtani intrigued. She insisted that only Genghis' direct heirs should be Khan.
Other powerful nobles agreed and placed her son Mongke on the throne in 1251. After that, rulers of the Mongolian Empire came from the Tolui line. For this, Sorghaghtani has been called the "guiding spirit of the Tolui line".
Sorghaghtani's son Mongke was the last Great Khan to have complete control over the vast Mongol Empire. Upon his death another of her sons - Khubilai (Kubla) Khan- became Great Khan. It was he who launched assaults against China and eventually ruled all of that empire, establishing the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1272-1368).
Sorghaghtani made sure her sons received a good education even though she herself was illiterate. She taught them to respect rather than exploit the people in the lands they conquered. Since she knew Khubilai Khan would be ruling China, she made sure he was introduced to the concepts of Confucianism. She taught all her sons religious tolerance and practiced it herself.
Sorghaghtani impressed contemporaries as well. According to a Middle Eastern physician:
" ... if I were to see among the race of women another who is so remarkable a woman as this, I would say that the race of women is superior to the race of men."
She was described by the European missionaries who visited during the 13th century, as "one of the most renowned Mongols."
Venus @ 13° Gemini conjunct Sun, Mercury square Neptune
Missing transit 1388 CE
November 23, 1396 CE
1. Jeanne, Queen of Navarre (1272-1305 CE)
Jeanne of Navarre became Queen of France when she married King Philippe IV. Her story is limportant here because her succession was challenged using the Salic Laws.
The kingdom of Navarre was one of the Christian kingdoms that emerged in northern Spain after the Muslim conquests of the 8th century (next to Asturias, Leon, Castile and Aragon). When the native rulers died out, it was inherited by the counts of Champagne, whose heiress was Jeanne.
Jeanne of Navarre was the mother of three French Kings, King Louis X, King Philip V and King Charles IV. Her daughter Queen Isabelle married King Edward II of England.
The line of succession after Jeanne's son King Louis X was the first time the Salic Laws were tested in the Capetian regime. The first time under the French Capetian line that a king died without leaving a surviving male heir was in 1316, when Louis X (Jeanne's son) died leaving a 6-year old daughter Jeanne and a pregnant widow.
The laws were again challenged when her grandson King Edward III of England made a claim to the French throne. This was one of the causes of the Hundred Years War.
2. Queen Isabelle of England (1292-1358 CE) aka "The She-Wolf of France"
Queen Isabelle of England, daughter of Jeanne of Navarre and wife of King Edward II, also known as "the She-Wolf of France", invaded her husband's country in 1326 and, with the aid of her lover Roger Mortimer, forced Edward II to abdicate in favor of his son, the future King Edward III.
King Edward II was held hostage and (this is ugly) reamed with a red hot poker resulting in his death. This was a symbolic gesture. Much of the general hostility toward him derived from his homosexuality and the political favors he bestowed on "favorites".
When Edward III assumed the throne, he, avenged his father's grotesque death. He had Mortimer hanged and caused his mother to flee to Scotland. She tried to rally forces there with two other warlike women Christian, Lady Bruce and Isobel, Countess of Buchan but did not succeed. She was forced to retire to a convent for the rest of her life.
King Edward III's later claim to the French throne was contested with the Salic Laws.
Venus @ 15° Sagittarius conjunct Sun and widely part of a configuration of 5 planets opposite Moon/Neptune/Pluto and square Mars (Mutable Tsquare)
May 25, 1518 CE
Margaret of Denmark (1353-1412 CE)
Queen Margaret of Denmark succeeded her son King Olaf in 1387 and also ruled Norway. She proved herself to be a great stateswoman, among other things getting the Holstein counts to return Schleswig to her country. In 1389 Margaret became the Queen of Sweden as well, thus united Scandinavia during her reign.
Margaret died suddenly aboard ship and left her property to a cathedral on the condition that Masses for her soul would be said regularly for all eternity. This was discontinued because of the Protestant Reformation in the 1500s but to this day, a special bell is rung twice daily in her memory.
Venus @ 19° Gemini conjunct Sun square Jupiter trine Neptune
May 23, 1526 CE
Catherine de Medici, Queen of France (1519-1589 CE)
Catherine de Medici, Queen of France came from the influential Medici family of Florence, Italy. In 1533 she married Henri, the Duke of Orleans, who became the French king in 1547.
Catherine brought Italian culture to the French court, establishing tastes in theater and introducing foods such as artichokes and broccoli and pastries such as macaroons and frangipani.
Catherine was a powerful regent after her husband's death and actively involved in court intrigue. Though a Catholic, she tried to bring peace between Catholic and Protestant factions in her country. Failing to do this, she was blamed personally for the St. Bartholomew's Massacre in 1570, where almost 50,000 Huguenot Protestants lost their lives.
Catherine de Medici was ranked #97 of the Top One Hundred People of the Millennium by Time/Life Publications.
Venus @ 16° Gemini conjunct Sun and part of a Stellium of 7 planets square Neptune (Saturn and Pluto square each other and are not involved)
December 7, 1631 CE
- 1. Mary Queen of Scots (1542-1587 CE)
Mary Queen of Scots led a troubled and persecuted life. At six days old, she became Queen of Scotland. At five years old, she went to live at the French Court, training to become the wife of King Francis II. He died the year after their marriage. Mary returned to Scotland and became embroiled in the raging controversy between Catholics and Protestants. She refused to relinquish her Catholic beliefs. Because she was a kingpin in the power struggle for England at that time, she was imprisoned for nearly 19 years by Queen Elizabeth I and eventually executed, albeit reluctantly.
2. Queen Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603 CE)
Queen Elizabeth I was one of the most effective, popular and intriguing figures in British history. The virgin queen, she refused to marry during her 45-year long reign which included the defeat of the Spanish Armada and the accomplishments of William Shakespeare and others. England under her aegis grew to become a strong European power and a vibrant economic and cultural force in the Western world.
Elizabeth I was ranked #88 on the Time/Life List of the Top One Hundred People of the Millennium.
3. Mirabai or Meera of India (1498-1546 CE)
Mirabai or Meera is perhaps one of the most remembered and quoted women in Indian history. Her songs are sung today all over India and she is a frequent favorite subject of films, books, dances, plays and paintings.
Mirabai was a devotee of Lord Krishna. She married outside her religion and refused to change. When her husband died after a few years of marriage, she refused to join him on the funeral pyre, a practice at the time that was expected of high caste Rajput widows, and instead proclaimed that now it was time for her to devote herself to Krishna.
Mirabai was reviled for this choice by both her husband's family and her own, imprisoned at home, but escaped and around 1527 began a pilgrimage to all places of holiness in the life of Krishna. She was met by adoring crowds.
Today in India, Mirabai is a symbol of a beautifully liberated woman who lived a worthwhile life although she did not have children and rebelled against both husband and in-laws to do what she thought was right.
[Quote from amazon.com "Meera, they said, was mad. She is also the symbol Mahatma Gandhi chose to inspire his modern Indian renaissance, and the archetypal female saint, whose songs of love and devotion remain an integral part of Indian life and culture."]
Venus at 14° Sagittarius conjunct Sun, trine Mars and Jupiter (Grand Trine in Fire) and square Uranus
December 4, 1639 CE
1. Queen Kristina Wasa of Sweden (1626-1689 CE)
Queen Kristina Wasa succeeded to the throne of her father, King Gustav in 1632. Her education included learning five foreign languages, studying ancient philosophers and historians and horsemanship, dueling and other arts of war, all of which she excelled at. She was reputed to study 12 hours a day during her years of education. Her tutors commented on her brilliance.
Kristina corresponded with the greatest minds of the age and invited Descartes to visit her court, aspiring to transform it into a "New Athens". She was instrumental in ending the Thirty Years War in Europe.
Approximately 1654, Kristina abdicated and proceeded to engage in one of the most fantastic and unique lives imaginable. She converted to Catholicism and fled to Rome, meeting the Pope personally. She tried unsuccessfully to seize the throne in Naples, then visited Fontainebleau where she conducted alchemical experiments.
At Fontainebleau she learned that a servant had betrayed her to the Pope. She had the servant executed in front of her, an act which horrified the enlightened Europeans she wanted to associate with, but she claimed it was her sovereign right. The Pope would no longer receive her.
Kristina continued her alchemical studies, trying to find the philosopher's stone and turn lead into gold. She studied astronomy with Lubenitz the next year. In 1167, she returned to Sweden, hoping to gain support for her rulership of Poland but failed and returned permanently to Rome where she became a very great patroness of the arts until her death in 1689.
2. Nur Jahan (1577-1647 CE)
Also influential during this time period was Nur Jahan. Nur Jahan was born into an aristocratic Persian family, married a soldier and was widowed at an early age. She and her little girl, Ladli, were brought in 1607 to the court of Jahangir, a powerful Mughal emperor. As she was a woman of remarkable beauty, Jahangir fell instantly in love with her and they were married within two months.
At the time of her marriage, Nur Jahan was considered middle aged and was only one of many wives. But within nine years she had completely taken control. Her husband was addicted to drugs and alcohol. He adored her above all others and needed her help in maintaining his façade of rulership.
Nur Jahan took special interest in women's matters and gave land and dowries to orphaned girls. She increased trade with Europeans and was in a position to control much of the commerce in luxury goods of the day so her patronage was eagerly sought.
Nur also ruled the emperor's harem (zanana) which consisted of hundreds of people - wives, courtesans, servants, slaves, eunuchs, spies, visiting relatives, etc. Through the zanana, Nur influenced popular tastes in cosmetics, fashion, food and artistic expression. Clothing for women was modified to become more suitable for hot weather. She was also influential in building many beautiful gardens, mosques and other architecture still visible and enjoyed today.
Nur Jahan was ultimately toppled by Jahangir's third son, Shah Jahan, who later built the Taj Mahal for his favorite wife, Mumtaz Muhal. When Shah Jahan took power, Nur was exiled to Lahore where she spent the rest of her life with her daughter.
Also of interest ...
The Salic law was also implicitly introduced in Navarre in 1620 when Louis XIII, king of France and Navarre proclaimed a perpetual union of the two kingdoms.
Venus @ 12° Sagittarius conjunct Sun, Mercury, Jupiter, trine Moon
1. Nzinga or "Jinga" (1582-1663 CE)
June 6, 1761 CE
Nzinga was the Queen of the Ndongo kingdom in the area that has become Angola. She organized guerilla warfare against the invading Portuguese, conquered the neighboring Matamba and developed alliances to control the trade routes through the area, at one time allying with the Dutch against the Portuguese.
She was eventually forced to sue for peace but still refused to pay tribute to the Portuguese.
Venus @ 18° Gemini conjunct Sun and part of a Stellium of 5 planets square Jupiter, Uranus, Saturn square Pluto (loose Mutable Tsquare, Neptune is not very involved)
June 3, 1769 CE
1. Catherine the Great, Tsarina (Empress) of Russia (1729-1796 CE)
Catherine the Great was undeniably one of the most powerful people in history, male or female. A German princess, she arrived at the Russian Court in 1744 as the 15 year old bride of the strange and unpopular Grand Duke Peter. Catherine waited patiently for many years before dispatching her husband with the help of willing conspirators.
Considering herself a member of the Enlightenment that was sweeping Europe at this time, she corresponded with some of the greatest minds of the era. Catherine had innumerable lovers and did not find it contradictory to her enlightenment that she ruled Russia as an absolute autocrat.
2. Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
Certainly not my first choice for someone to include during this time period, Mary Wollstonecraft was, nevertheless, the first woman to appear on the Time/Life Top One Hundred People for the Millennium. She checks in at #26 and was the first woman to appear on the list.
This is what Time/Life said in her nomination:
"'A Vindication of the Rights of Woman', British author Mary Wollstonecraft's landmark plea for women's equality, was published in 1792, at a time when French citizens were demanding reforms and overthrowing their monarchy. Inspired by those democratic principles, Wollstonecraft challenged Rousseau and others, arguing for equal education and employment for women and urging national legislation to guarantee women's rights. Wollstonecraft, who gave birth to her first child while unmarried (her second, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, wrote Frankenstein), was criticized for a lifestyle that defied convention, but her work influenced generations of feminists."
The next woman to appear on the list was in position #41, Florence Nightingale.
Venus @ 13° Gemini conjunct Sun square Neptune
December 9, 1874 CE
1. Empress Maria Theresa of Austria (1724-1780 CE)
Maria Theresa was another major player on the European scene during the span of these two Venus transits. Maria Theresa defended her throne against Frederick the Great of Prussia and unified the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Maria Theresa was the first woman on a throne in Middle Europe. She ruled over a multiethnic population from which came some of the greatest achievements of European culture. Mother of 11, including Marie Antoinette of France, Maria Theresa was a wise and effective ruler, greatly beloved of her people, now as then. Her modus operandi was to conquer by diplomacy and marriage. Today she remains a beloved symbol to the Austrian people.
2. Marie Antoinette of France (1755-1795 CE)
Marie Antoinette was the daughter of Empress Maria Theresa. She is perhaps best known for her role in hastening the French Revolution and was beheaded along with her husband at the famous French guillotine.
Also of interest ...
The Salic Laws were again challenged in 1789 and 1833 by claimants to Napoleon's throne. Napoleon had adopted the Salic Law for his empire. The Salic Law was introduced in Spain by Philip V, grandson of Louis XIV (though secretly repealed in 1789: doubts over the validity of this secret repeal gave rise to the Carlist claims to the Spanish throne in 1833, which continued until the 1930s when the Carlist line died out.
At this time, in 1775, King George III of England released from bondage woman and children employed in coal and salt mines.
Venus @ 16° Sagittarius conjunct Sun, Moon trine Uranus
December 6, 1882 CE
1. Tzu-hsi, Empress of China (1835-1908 CE)
Called the Dowager Empress, Tzu-hsi had a controversial influence on China. She was only a low-ranking concubine to Emperor Hs'en Feng, but rose in status when she bore his only son. She ruled with an iron hand behind the scenes and when her son succeeded to the throne, refused to yield her power. During her reign, the Japanese defeated the Chinese in the 1890s and Western powers forcefully increased their presence in China. After the Boxer Rebellion against European interference, Tzu-hsi began a program of reforms and moderation government.
2. Florence Nightingale (1820-1910 CE)
In March 1853, Russia invaded Turkey. Britain and France went to Turkey's aid. This conflict became known as the Crimean War and from it emerged a figure of international renown, Florence Nightingale, who became a major influence in the last decades of the 19th century.
Florence Nightingale was a nurse who practically had to beg her way to Scutari in the Crimea. She found conditions there intolerable. Soldiers were dying from cholera, dysentery and typhus.
Nightingale, a believer in statistics, was one of the first to recognize the necessity of cleanliness in disease prevention and containment. She remained an effective advocate for cleanliness, women's rights, nursing care and other causes until blindness overtook her in 1895. She lived for another 15 years as a complete invalid requiring full nursing care herself. Her contributions to the world we live in are inestimable. Most believe she contracted syphilis in Turkey [Nightingale has Venus square Pluto natally].
Florence Nightingale was chosen in position #41 in the Time/Life Top One Hundred People of the Millennium.
3. Queen Victoria (1819-1901 CE)
Britannia, rule the waves! Queen Victoria ruled England at the height of its colonial power. Her reign was the longest in British history but her influence extended even further geographically and chronologically as many of her 9 children, their children and grandchildren married other royals in Europe.
4. Queen Liliuokalani (1838-1917 CE)
Queen Liliuokalani was the last ruler of Hawaii. Her reign was short and tragic. Hawaii was experiencing a depressed economy and had a constitution imposed on it by the United States.
Queen Liliuokalani was determined to free Hawaii from foreign control. She was accused of fermenting an uprising and was deposed and imprisoned by the United States. Thereafter, a provisional government was set up.
5. Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906)
Susan B. Anthony was chosen #83 in the Time/Life Top One Hundred People of the Millennium survey. This is how they describe her:
"[Susan B. Anthony's] tireless campaign for women's suffrage made her a leader in the first wave of American feminism. The daughter of Quaker abolitionists, Susan B. Anthony was incensed that women were barred from speaking at temperance meetings. She barnstormed for equality and was insulted, vilified, even pelted with rotten eggs for her trouble. After brazenly casting a vote in 1872, she was arrested and fined $100 (which she never paid). The ratification of the 19th amendment in 1920, 14 years after her death, finally confirmed her credo, 'Failure is impossible'."
Also of interest ...
In 1862, polygamy was declared illegal in the United States. In 1871 US Federal Judge James B. McKean ordered the arrest of Brigham Young and other Mormon leaders on charges of polygamy. Young died in 1877. In 1879, the US Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of anti-polygamy laws.
In 1869, Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton form the National Woman's Suffrage Association and the rest, as they say, is her/story.
In 1871, the first sorority was founded in America; and the first YMCA was founded.
In 1871 Scottish missionary David Livingstone saw hundreds of African women shot while trying to escape slavers. He returned to speak out against slavery in Great Britain.
In 1872 Miss Victoria Woodall was the first woman nominated for president of the United States.
In 1879 President Hayes signed a bill that permitted woman attorneys to plead cases before the Supreme Court
Venus @ 14° Sagittarius conjunct Sun, Mercury and Mars and square Uranus
June 8, 2004 and June 6, 2012
- Mary Cassatt (1844-1926 CE)
Mary Cassatt was a painter of unbelievable grace. Her subject matter is usually mothers and babies. Her work is receiving more serious attention today than ever before.
Mary Cassatt grew up in Pennsylvania. She traveled and studied for four years in Paris, Rome and Madrid. In 1877 Edgar Degas invited her to join the impressionists.
Venus @ 17° Gemini conjunct Sun square Jupiter and widely Moon/Uranus trine Neptune and opposite Pluto (a loose Mutable Grand Cross involving 7 planets)
Venus @ 15° Gemini conjunct Sun trine Saturn square Mars
[View data and chart].
Things you can do to prepare for these transits consciously:
- Review your feelings about how you're expressing yourself as a woman
- If you're a man, review the women in your life and what they convey about you
- Let go thoughts of revenge, bitterness and retaliation ... try forgiveness instead
- Take some courses in money management and financial planning
- Think of a woman you admire - if you can't, you've got some work to do!
- Take on an apprentice - tell someone younger what you think it means to be a woman
- Read some biographies of famous women
- Write some biographies of famous women
- Push yourself into a new area of your own determining
- Ask a woman you admire how she got that way
- Treat your mother with special respect and get her to tell you some stories about her childhood and what things were like then
- Read some mythology books about the ancient goddesses
- cultivate your desire nature ... give yourself better and better mental, emotional and spiritual food
Notes & References:
|Netzach is Victory. The seventh Sephirah of the Tree of Life; Netzach is at the bottom of the Pillar of Mercy. It is the Sephirah of intense desire, associated with the Element of Fire, the Planet Venus, the Isis of nature and Hathor.
Tippereth is Beauty. The sixth Sephirah of the Tree of Life; Tiphareth is in the middle of the Pillar of Mildness. It connects to all other Sephiroth except Malkuth and is therefore the Sephirah that harmonizes all the other Sephiroth. It is the Sephirah associated with Christ, Osiris, Ra, the Cross of Suffering, the Resurrection, all healing, the Sun and Adepthood.
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|See Venus, the Rose and the Heart, by Nick Kollerstrom.
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|The laws of the Salian Franks are considered a part of the Germanic Codes that predated Roman Law in Europe. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia, "These codes (called leges barbarorum), dating from the 5th to the 9th cent., are usually divided into four groups: the Gothic (Visigothic, Burgundian, and Ostrogothic), the Frankish (Salic, Ripuarian, Chamavian, and Thuringian), the Saxon (Saxon, Anglo-Saxon, and Frisian), and the Bavarian (Alemannic and Bavarian).
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|As with others in this article, if someone was born in 30 CE she was at the peak of her influence in 60 CE. which is the time of the Venus transit or eclipse.
The fact that the first eclipse after Christ's birth begins at 0° Gemini and the next in 181 CE is at 0° Sagittarius reminds me of John the Baptist, the word (Gemini), followed by Christ, the spirit (Sagittarius). I can't imagine how coincidental this is, that the whole cycle of eclipses through the Gemini/Sagittarius axis begins at the very beginning of the Christian era, during the life of Christ. Perhaps as the theologians are so fond of saying, Christ was the fulfillment of desire (Venus). Be that as it may be, we are now halfway through the G/S axis and it is time to elevate our desires. [Please note that I am not a Christian. I am not religious. I am spiritual and I am a historian. These are important events in the evolution of the western world.]
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Nancy R. Fenn
has been a fulltime professional astrologer and intuitive life coach for over 25 years. She has studied human evolution, history, world culture, religions and myths her entire life. Nancy is also a gifted healer with a gentle yet powerful understanding about human experience.
Nancy runs several websites including bemyastrologer.com
. There she offers articles, a free online Tarot course, ezine, classes and astrological services for clients.
© Nancy R. Fenn