Joined: 30 Sep 2005
Location: Edinburgh, Scotland
|Posted: Sun Sep 07, 2014 5:18 pm Post subject: Scotland: Independence or Union? -Mark Cullen
I am sharing with members here an article I wrote that appeared a few months ago in Astrological Journal July/August issue 2014. The Astrological Journal is the publication of the Astrological Association of The United Kingdom.
Like many articles this piece was a compromise. Hence I ended up saying much less about both the Scottish national chart and the forthcoming referendum than I would have liked. In particular on the Scottish chart I had no room to discuss in detail the research that led me to the rectified degree of 26 Cancer. In regards the referendum I also had insufficient space to discuss the ingress charts which I feel was a significant omission. I plan to discuss the contents of this article and the referendum issue generally on the existing thread on Scotland entitled 'Scottish Independence?
I have therefore locked this thread and refer all comments to the existing thread discussing Scotland.
Please note all charts are in Whole Sign houses. The exception is Alex Salmond's Solar Return chart for this year (ie 2013-2014). Because of the strong angularity in that chart I have presented it in Porphyry houses.
Scotland: Independence or Union?
Following their landslide victory in the 2011 Scottish Parliament Elections, the Scottish National Party (SNP) not only formed the Scottish government but has been able to take forward their long-cherished ambition of holding a referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom.
After some negotiation the frame of words for the ballot on September 18th 2014 has been agreed as “Should Scotland be an independent country?"
If the population of Scotland choose independence, in preference to remaining in the United Kingdom, the very notion of ‘Great Britain’, which has existed politically since the Act of Union in 1707, will be all but dead. Politically, economically and existentially therefore, the outcome of this referendum could have profound implications not just for the people of Scotland but also those of England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Looking at a variety of charts, both national and natal, I hope to find sufficient testimony of a likely outcome this September. I will also be sharing my research into a national chart for Scotland.
Scottish Referendum – Opening of Poll chart: 18th September 2014, 7:00, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
Scottish Referendum – Close of Poll chart: 18th September 2014, 22:00, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
Source: The Electoral Commission website: www.aboutmyvote.co.uk/
1. United Kingdom charts
Considering the impact of Scotland leaving the Union, we can expect this to be strongly reflected in charts for the United Kingdom.
The Act of Union chart for 1707
The Union of Scotland and England in 1707 marked the birth of Great Britain as a political entity.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain, 12 May (NS) 1707, 00:00 hours, LMT, Westminster, London, UK (all charts use whole sign houses) (1)
If this chart represents the ‘marriage contract’ between these two nations one would expect indications of a forthcoming divorce to be very evident. By transit, the poll in September does see Saturn Rx close to the MC of the chart. Transiting Saturn is configured in to square Pluto and Jupiter, but this is separating by retrograde motion. The Solar return for this chart in 2014 has Pluto about 3 degrees from the ascendant, while an exalted Jupiter in Cancer is on the chart descendant – hardly surprising, considering the strength of the SNP challenge this year. Solar arc Mars has been on the IC of this chart but it is separating.
However, looking further ahead we find that the solar arc descendant conjoins the 1707 Sun in mid-2015 and the solar arc ascendant conjoins the 1707 MC in mid-2016. Uranus first squares the 1707 ascendant in July and August this year, and squares it again in April 2015. Pluto will cross the 1707 ascendant three times in 2016: in February, June and for the final time in December. The solar return for 2015 has the Sun (Lord 12) on the MC in a square to the Moon. 2016 is a 10th house profectional year for the 1707 chart. The lord of the year is Venus in the 7th house. The 1707 solar return chart in 2016 features a Moon in Cancer in the 9th house opposing Pluto; this opposition falls along the ascendant-descendant axis in the 1707 chart.
The 1707 chart appears to have much more happening in 2015 and 2016 than at the time of the referendum. The question is, though, does this represent a protracted negotiation phase between the Scottish and United Kingdom governments following a 'yes' vote, or a return to wider UK concerns such as the General Election in 2015 and a possible referendum on European membership in 2016?
The United Kingdom chart for 1801
The 1801 chart is probably the most popular chart used for the United Kingdom as a whole by British astrologers today.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801) 1st January 1801 (NS), 00:00 hrs LMT, Westminster, London, UK (2)
Transiting Pluto has been hovering over the UK chart IC and Sun for some time now. While it is applying retrograde to the UK Sun on the referendum date, it moves direct less than a week after the poll. Does this indicate a lessening of tension following the vote? By Solar arc, Jupiter is opposing radix Pluto. However, solar arc Pluto is separating from Uranus. Little else seems to be going on by solar arc at time of the referendum. This period seems less dramatic than the last time the United Kingdom faced a constitutional threat to its very existence in 1922 with the creation of the Irish free state; at that time the solar arc MC opposed the 1801 Mars, and solar arc Mercury (Lord 12) squared the Moon.
Comparing the solar return chart for 2014 to the 1801 chart we have Uranus square the radix MC. In the return chart Mars (Lord 7) is placed in the radix ascendant sign Libra in detriment, while Uranus is on the radix chart descendant. The 7th house ruler is relatively weak in the sign of Libra. In medieval astrology the 7th house lord in the 1st house indicates an enemy captured and under ones control. Could this apply here?
Yet, perhaps we are mistaken in expecting all the drama to show up at the time of the referendum. A successful 'yes' vote in the referendum would likely lead to a year or two of tough negotiations between the remaining United Kingdom and Scotland over things such as North Sea oil resources, currency, armed forces, immigration and division of national debt.
In the 1801 chart solar return chart for 2015 we see Mars (Lord 7) opposing Jupiter (Lord 4). Comparing the return chart with the 1801 radix we have a similar theme with SR Mars opposing the radix Saturn (Lord 4), SR Uranus is on the radix north node, and the SR and radix nodes conjunct but reversed.
Solar arc Jupiter conjoins Pluto in early 2016 and solar arc Mercury (Lord 12) conjoins the 1801 Moon from late 2016.
We clearly have a degree of ambiguity in working with UK charts beyond the Scottish referendum into 2015-16 since it is very difficult to know whether they are reflecting ongoing Scottish issues or wider UK matters.
A National chart for Scotland?
Over time several decisive moments can shape a nation’s destiny. This has certainly been the case for Scotland. So do we have any strong candidates for a Scottish national chart?
An obvious starting point is the accession of Kenneth MacAlpin (Cináed mac Ailpín) who is often proposed as the first king of a united kingdom of Scots and Picts (known in gaelic as Alba) in the 840s. Unfortunately, modern historians have found it very difficult to separate the national myth from fact regarding this king’s reign. More fundamentally we have no clearly agreed year, let alone date for the accession of this King (1)
The 1005 Chart – the Accession of Malcolm II
One Alban king for whom both the date and year of his accession to the throne is clearly established is Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda). Malcom II acceded to the throne of Scotland on March 25th 1005 (OS)4. This King’s accession chart was originally proposed as a chart for Scotland by the Edinburgh-based astrologer Violet Milne in a short article in 1990. Milne located the chart for Scone Abbey, near Perth, which was the heart of the kingdom of Alba. Scone Abbey was also the original location of the famous ‘stone of destiny’ upon which the kings of Alba were traditionally crowned5.
Certainly, The Kingdom of Alba seems to have undergone substantial territorial expansion in this period. Originally, it had been restricted to north of the Firth of Forth, but in this period the kingdom expanded south as far as the river Tweed and possibly the area around the river Clyde too6
Accession of Malcolm II, 25th March, 1005 (OS), Scone Palace (near Perth), Scotland). No historical record of time – rectified by Mark Cullen: 11:00 am LMT. Note: Scone Palace 3W29’00 56N24’00
The solar chart proposed by Violet Milne has Leo rising. It is delineated fully in an online article by the Scottish astrologer Anne Whitaker on her website7. While the date of the 1005 chart resonates astrologically I have never been convinced that a Leo rising chart works for Scotland. I therefore want to offer some reasons why I have rectified this chart with a 26 Cancer ascendant, which gives Saturn rising close to the ascendant.
Scotland and the sign of Cancer
In traditional astrology the sign of Cancer has been associated with Scotland for centuries8. The Battle of Bannockburn concluded in 1314 with a stellium of planets in Cancer. Robert the Bruce himself had his Sun around 25-26 Cancer. However, the tradition of linking signs to countries is actually very ancient. It involves a system of astrological directionology as set out by Claudius Ptolemy in his Tetrabiblos9. Scotland probably obtained its Cancer association in this system due its location in the far north, which links to Cancer.
Mind you, there are always a few dissenting opinions. A fascinating example of nationalistic polemics applied to astrology comes from John of Ashendon (fl. c.1350) an important fourteenth-century English astrologer. Ashendon asserted that Scorpio must rule over Scotland because the Scots, like the Scorpion, are "cruel, proud, excitable, luxurious, bestial, false, and underhanded and contemptuous of faith and faithfulness’’!10
Looking at things a little more objectively, I have carried out extensive research into innumerable events in Scottish history and I have concluded that the signs of Cancer and Aries seem to predominate in Scottish affairs with matters linked to broadly positive outcomes. In contrast, events that were wholly negative tended more often to have a predominant Capricorn or Libra theme. Events seem to activate especially around 24-27 in the cardinal signs. The degree of 26 Cancer seems to occur a remarkable amount in people or events linked to Scotland – so much so that I consider 26 Cancer the Scottish astrological degree. In looking at untimed historical charts, I have therefore decided to use 26 Cancer as the rising degree as it resonates so strongly with Scottish affairs.
For all these reasons I consider Cancer the most appropriate sign for Scotland’s chart ascendant. Scots are in general quite clannish and, dare I say, at times a tad defensive. But at the same time there is still a very strong sense of a shared community spirit in Scotland. It is exemplified in the old Scots Lowland saying "We're a' Jock Tamson's Bairns". In other words we are all fundamentally the same.
The 1005 Cancer rising chart also has Saturn rising on the ascendant. Saturn is in its sign of detriment here. The ‘dour Scot’ is a national stereotype that is well reflected in prominent Scottish personalities, ranging from the fictional Fraser in Dad’s Army to contemporary figures such as Gordon Brown, Alex Ferguson and Andy Murray. Historically, this may reflect a legacy of a once rather stern Presbyterianism in Scottish culture and the protestant work ethic. The Sun was actually on this degree in 1560 at the opening of the so called ‘Reformation parliament' which established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland as the national religion. Saturn rules both the 7th and 8th by whole sign in this chart. The former no doubt reflects Scotland’s difficult relationship at times with its larger neighbour England, due to the border wars and conflicts that occurred over the centuries. The 8th house also brings up associations of fear and anxiety as well as handling other people’s money, which Scots have often made a successful occupation out of in the banking and finance sector.
This Scottish tendency to towards a negative outlook and pessimism has even spawned academic research and books on the subject (11). The psychologist Carol Craig has founded the Centre For Confidence and Well Being in Scotland which seeks to change negative and pessimistic cultural attitudes12. Yet this chart influence could also be reflected in the practical bent of the Scottish mind with many famous engineers and scientists coming out of Scotland. In philosophy we also have David Hume who embodied that sceptical empiricism at its best.
The Declaration of Arbroath
Looking through Scottish history I have considered numerous alternative dates as potential national charts. However, the only other chart I have found which looks as powerful as the 1005 chart is a chart for the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320. Unlike the 1005 chart this is not based on the accession of a King. Instead it represents a declaration of Scotland’s status as an independent, sovereign state. It appears to be the first document of its kind in the world. It was in the form of a letter submitted to Pope John XXII, dated 6 April 132013.
The most memorable part of the document sounds as if it has been lifted from the script of the movie Braveheart but the reality is of course the reverse:
"...for, as long as but a hundred of us remain alive, never will we on any conditions be brought under English rule. It is in truth not for glory, nor riches, nor honours that we are fighting, but for freedom – for that alone, which no honest man gives up but with life itself".(14)
There is evidence that this document was an intellectual influence on the framers of the American Declaration of Independence15. In the absence of a timed chart I use a 10:00 LMT time for this chart which gives us the familiar 26 Cancer rising degree.
I think this chart has special relevance in considering matters relevant to Scotland as a separate nation. It seems to embody a more positive, aspirational vision of Scotland than the 1005 chart.
Declaration of Arbroath, 6 April 1320 (OS), Abroath Abbey, Arbroath, Scotland. No historical record of time – rectified by Mark Cullen: 10:00 am LMT
Scottish charts – 2014
The Moon in the close of poll chart is on the Scottish astrological degree of 26 Cancer in both the 1005 and 1320 chart – a clear symbolic demonstration of the people of Scotland deciding on what their future identity shall be. By transit a retrograde Pluto is applying to the 1005 Sun and transiting Mars (Lord 10 in the 1005) applies to trine the 1005 Mercury. At the same time transiting Mercury opposes Mars. These contradictory signals reflect well the undoubted divided outlook of the Scottish peoples themselves on the referendum.
In the opening of poll chart the Moon is trine the 1320 chart Moon. By transit Pluto is conjunct Jupiter in the 1320 chart and transiting Saturn (Lord 7) is trine the 1320 Moon. Transiting Venus is opposing the 1320 Pluto and transiting Mercury is opposing the 1320 Sun.
Since the 1320 chart astrologically typifies the sense of a separate Scottish identity, do these transits favour a 'no' vote? It may not be that clear cut. Transiting Jupiter is in a wide trine to the 1320 Mercury in September 2014. The solar arcs for the 1320 chart are very interesting. The solar arc Sun will be applying to conjunct the 1320 Moon in 2015. Moreover, the solar arc sun will be on the MC of this chart in 2017. If this rectified chart is correct could this suggest a successful outcome of independence negotiations with the UK government? An alternative quite plausible interpretation might be constitutional reforms by the UK government to give a Scottish parliament more devolved powers following a 'no' vote in the referendum.
Alex Salmond has been the dominant personality in Scottish nationalist politics for nearly 25 years. Charismatic, clever and often witty, Salmond has led the Scottish National party twice, first from 1990-2000 and again from 2004 onwards. Salmond has been First Minister of Scottish Government since 200716.
Much of Salmond’s popularity and charisma seems to stem from his grand trine in water involving the Moon, Venus and his Jupiter/Uranus conjunction. Salmond has a powerful sect light in his Moon in Pisces in mutual reception with Jupiter. That Jupiter-Uranus conjunction is exactly on 26 Cancer. This rather graphically expresses Salmond’s impact on Scotland with his optimistic yet radical vision of Scotland’s future. It offers a head-on challenge to the Saturn rising vision of Scotland in the 1005 chart.
Alex Salmond, First Minister of Scottish Parliament and Leader of Scottish National Party, 31 December 1954, 16:30 GMT, Linlithgow, Scotland, United Kingdom. (Source: birth certificate: Caroline Gerard (AA)
Salmond had the royal star Fomalhaut culminating at his time of birth. Ptolemy attributes this star’s influence as similar to that of Venus and Mercury. This star is generally considered benefic and is associated with eminence, fortune and power, with a concern for social reform. Salmond also had the 1st magnitude star Betelgeuse rising at his time of birth. Ptolemy said this star was of the nature of Mars and Mercury, and it has an association with martial matters, fame, wealth and the possession of a sharp and strategic mind17. However, fitting its association with stormy weather, this star has a reputation for unpredictability18.
Reflecting his Sun and Mercury in Capricorn, Salmond had a background as an economist on North Sea Oil with the Royal Bank of Scotland before he entered the UK parliament19.
Not surprisingly, Salmond’s chart has close connections to the 1320 chart. Like most nationalists Salmond has a strong romantic streak in him which is exemplified by his Moon in Pisces in the whole sign 9th, the house of belief.
Examining Salmond’s transits for the referendum, he has the Moon trine his Mars at the opening of poll and on his natal Jupiter/Uranus conjunction in the close of poll. Transiting Saturn is trine his natal Mars (Lord 10). Pluto has been near Salmond’s Sun most of the year; it is still applying retrograde to his Sun at the time of the poll. However, as noted earlier, it will move direct again a few days after the poll. It will therefore be applying to Salmond’s Mercury (Lord 12) after the poll. Jupiter is widely trine his whole sign 10th house while Venus is in opposition to his Mars. As so often with transits a contradictory picture emerges.
I think it just might prove significant for both Salmond and Scotland that Jupiter has moved into Leo by the time of the referendum. Jupiter rules Salmond’s sect light (the Moon), as well as Mars (Lord 10) and his MC. The fact that Jupiter will be in aversion (inconjunct) to these key points during the referendum leaves Salmond in a less favourable situation.
The solar arcs and the solar return chart picture look quite difficult for Salmond at the time of the referendum. His solar arc Moon is square his natal Pluto and opposing his Venus, while solar arc Ascendant is opposing his Mars. His solar arc Saturn is opposing his ascendant and solar arc Venus is in opposition to his Jupiter/Uranus conjunction.
Alex Salmond is going through a 12th house profectional year in 2014. This would not be ideal in most circumstances. Since Mercury rules Salmond’s 12th house this makes Mercury his Lord of the year for 2014.
Alex Salmond's solar return chart
In Salmond’s solar return his lord of the year, Mercury, is in tight conjunction to the IC and Pluto. The solar return has a tight T-square involving the Sun near the IC, with Mars on the ascendant and Uranus on the descendant. The Sun, Mercury and Pluto oppose Salmond’s MC in the chart. An exalted Jupiter in Cancer is close to the MC but its retrograde motion makes its effect unpredictable here.
Comparing the return chart to Salmond’s natal chart the picture also looks very challenging. The return Uranus is square Salmond’s Sun, while the return Mars is square his Moon and Mercury. Pluto also perfects a tight conjunction to Mercury. While the return Jupiter is close to Salmond’s natal ascendant it is actually separating due to retrogradation. Finally, the south node falls on Salmond’s lot of fortune.
Salmond’s return chart for 2015 has Uranus opposing his MC. Saturn is conjunct the ascendant and Mars opposing Jupiter. The SR Sun is tightly square the SR MC/IC axis.
Those looking for an independence outcome could delineate this as Salmond and the Scottish government slogging through heavyweight negotiations on independence with the UK government during 2015. 2016 looks a much better time for Salmond, with his solar return Sun on the MC that year and reinforced by the solar arc Sun conjoining his natal MC.
Alternatively, the difficulties in 2015 could fit Salmond leaving office in 2015. It seems unlikely that he would wish to remain as Scottish First Minister for that long in the event of a 'no' vote this September.
The Scottish National Party
The Scottish National Party was inaugurated on Saturday 7 April 1934, in Glasgow, at its first annual conference20. Although there is no time available, I have rectified the chart based on key events and personalities in the party history to give a time of 10:02am BST with a 17 Cancer ascendant.
Although, there are other political parties involved in the independence-focused Yes Scotland campaign, such as the Scottish Greens and Scottish Socialists, the SNP remain the dominant political force in the drive for independence.
Scottish National Party, 7 April 1934, 11:02 am BST, Glasgow, United Kingdom (Dates sourced in end notes)
The close of poll Moon is square the SNP Uranus. A retrograde Uranus is close to the SNP Sun at the time of the referendum. However, this aspect doesn’t perfect until April 2015. Similarly next April-May sees Neptune over the rectified SNP MC and Pluto on the chart descendant. There is a wide trine from Jupiter to Mars (Lord 10) at the time of the referendum. Transiting Jupiter is conjunct the radix south node. Overall, the dynamics in the chart in September don’t look as dramatic as at time of the landslide SNP win at the 2011 Parliament elections.
However, looking ahead, solar arc Uranus squares the SNP sun in 2017 and Uranus crosses the rectified SNP ascendant that year too.
Other key players
Prime Minister David Cameron’s strongly Libran personality can be seen as embodying the 1801 chart ascendant very well. On the whole Cameron has handled the negotiations over a referendum quite skilfully. In the Edinburgh agreement (agreed during a Libra new moon) he negotiated a deal with the Scottish government that meant that the idea of a third choice of an enhanced devolution deal for Scotland as an option was excluded from the ballot. This has denied the SNP the chance of a fall-back position in the event of a 'no' vote.
Cameron does have Uranus opposing his Sun at the time of the Scottish referendum. However, it is retrograde at this point and not applying to the Sun. This aspect will not perfect until next spring which is when Cameron’s real difficulties seem more apparent. By solar arc there do seem to be difficulties for him ahead but these also look unlikely to activate until 2015. With a forthcoming General Election in May 2015 it is difficult to know whether these relate to Scotland as well as wider UK domestic issues.
Looking at the charts of other prominent individuals involved in the Scottish referendum we obviously see conflicting chart influences which are open to widely varying delineation. Overall though I tend to think the charts for those involved in the pro-independence Yes Scotland campaign look difficult during the referendum period. For example, Nicola Sturgeon, the deputy leader of the SNP has transiting Saturn opposing her natal Saturn and transiting Mars (Lord 1) square her natal nodes. In her solar return chart for 2014 the Moon is the Lord of the year but is ruling the 12th house in that chart. Uranus is on the SR MC. Sturgeon also has solar arc Pluto on her ascendant and solar arc Sun on her natal Venus (Lord 12). However, Sturgeon’s chart does show more positive developments in 2015. She will be in a 10th house profectional year from July 2015 and in her solar return that year her lord of the year (Mars) will be on the chart MC. Sturgeon’s solar return Jupiter in 2015 is also conjunct her natal MC. This could fit a scenario of her taking over the leadership of the SNP in 2015 or 2016.
Dennis Canavan, Chairman of the Yes campaign in Scotland, has a Moon-Pluto conjunction in his solar return chart for 2014. In contrast the UK Scottish Secretary Alistair Carmichael has his solar return Sun on the ascendant and his SR Sun conjunct Jupiter in his 2014 chart. Unfortunately, Alistair Darling, the Chair of the Better Together Campaign, has no timed chart.
Data for Further Research
Nicola Sturgeon, Deputy Leader of the Scottish National Party
19 July 1970, 15:16 BST, Irvine, Scotland, United Kingdom
Source: Birth certificate (Caroline Gerard) AA
Dennis Canavan, Chairman of Advisory Board, Yes Campaign
8 August 1942, 23:10 BDST, Cowdenbeath, Scotland, United Kingdom.
Source: Birth certificate (Caroline Gerard) AA
Blair Jenkins, Chief Executive, YES Campaign
9 January 1957, 13:00 GMT, Elgin, Scotland, United Kingdom.
Source: Birth certificate (Caroline Gerard) AA
Alistair Carmichael, Scottish Secretary (UK government)
15 July 1955, 22:55 BST, Port Ellen, Scotland, United Kingdom.
Source: Birth certificate (Caroline Gerard) AA
David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
9 October 1966, 06:00am, London England, UK:
Source: Sy Scholfield cited in Astrodatabank (A)
Alistair Darling, Chair of the Better Together Campaign
28 November 1953, time unknown, London, England United Kingdom.
Source: Wikipedia (X)
Yes Scotland Campaign Launch 11.32 BST, 25th May, 2012, Edinburgh, Scotland
Source: Live broadcast Scottish Television (STV). AA
Better Together Campaign: 25th June 2012, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (AM-X)
The 2015 solar eclipse
Looking at forthcoming eclipses, a solar eclipse will occur on March 20, 2015. The path of the eclipse will across the north Atlantic including the Faroe Islands and will be close to the Shetland Islands. It will result in a large partial visible eclipse across the UK, greater than 80% everywhere. Intriguingly, it falls at 29 Pisces, the degree of the Moon in the 1066 chart for England. So might this foretell some break up of the union following months of negotiations? It is an intriguing idea. Although I suspect it may just as likely relate to wider domestic rifts in the UK with the forthcoming general election next year.
The life of the mundane astrologer venturing into prediction is always an especially hazardous one. I certainly think this result will be very close. Overall, I lean astrologically to the view that the result is more likely to be a 'no' vote…just. However, as we have seen, the astrology is by no means black and white on this issue and other interpretations of the symbolism in these charts is perfectly viable. As someone who believes in at least a modicum of human free will I find that reassuring rather than frustrating.
Even with a 'no' vote, nationalism will not simply melt away. More Scots currently seem to prefer increased devolved powers for the Scottish Parliament rather than outright independence. But if this fails to satisfy in the long term, the nationalists will be the obvious beneficiaries. For the United Kingdom the status quo is no longer an option.
Mark Cullen has an MA in history and has been studying astrology since the 1980s. After studying with The Faculty of Astrological Studies, he went on to complete Deborah Houlding's STA (School of Traditional Astrology) Certificate in Horary in 2005. Mark’s astrological interests include ancient and medieval astrology and he specialises in the mundane branch of astrology. He has been Chair of the Scottish Astrological Association (founded 1974) since 2011 and is the mundane forum moderator on the Skyscript website. He lives in Edinburgh and works in the homelessness sector.
1 Source: Campion, Nicholas, The Book of World Horoscopes (3rd edition), Bournemouth, 1999 p.343.
2 Source: Campion, Nicholas, Book of World Horoscopes, (3rd edition) Bournemouth, 1999, p.343.
3 Woolf, Alex (2007), From Pictland to Alba 789-1070. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd,
4 Duncan, A.A.M. The Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and Independence. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2002.
5 Milne, Violet. (1990) Origins of Scotland in Pulsar, The Journal of The Scottish Astrological Association, No.4, Spring, pp.14-16. Magnusson, Magnus (2000) Scotland: The Story of a Nation. London: Harper Collins. Lynch, Michael (1992) Scotland: A New History. London: Pimlico
6 Woolf, Alex. (2007) From Pictland To Alba 789-1070. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd.
7 ‘Scotland’s Horoscope’, http://anne-whitaker.com/2014/02/12/scotlands-horoscope-2/
8 Examples include: Lilly, William, Christian Astrology, (London, 1647); Corss James, Uranoscopia (Edinburgh, 1662) Cardano, Gerolamo, Aphorismorum astromicorum sementa septem, (Nuremburg, 1547) Leowitz, Cyprian, Ephemeridum Novum (Augsburg, 1557).
9 Robbins, Frank E. (ed.) 1940. Tetrabiblos. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press (Loeb Classical Library)
10 Saracens, Higgs, Deborah (2003) Demons & Jews: Making Monstors in Medieval Art, Chapter 1, p.31, 2003
11 Craig, Carol (2011), The Scots' Crisis of Confidence. (2nd ed) Argyll: Argyll Publishing
12 http://www.centreforconfidence.co.uk/ Accessed 06/05/2014
11 Cowan J. Edward (2002) For Freedom Alone: The Declaration of Arbroath, 1320. East Linton: Tuckwell Press
14 Cowan J. Edward (2002) For Freedom Alone: The Declaration of Arbroath, 1320. East Linton: Tuckwell Press
15 Klieforth, A.L, Klieforth and Munro R.J. (2004) The Scottish Invention of America, Democracy and Human Rights. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America.
16 Macwhirter, Iain (2013) Road to Referendum. Glasgow: Cargo Publishing
17 Robbins, Frank E., ed. (940) Tetrabiblos. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press (Loeb Classical Library)
18 Starlore of the Constellations, http://www.skyscript.co.uk Accessed 06/05/2014
19 Torrance, David. (2010) Salmond: Against the Odds, Edinburgh, Birlinn
20 Lynch, Peter. (2013) SNP: The History of the Scottish National Party p.49 (2nd ed) Cardiff: Welsh Academic Press
‘’As thou conversest with the heavens, so instruct and inform thy minde according to the image of Divinity…’’ William Lilly
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